European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union. Since the founding of the Coal and Steel Community after World War.

This service is more advanced with JavaScript available, learn more at http: Journal of Consumer Policy. The Single Market of the European Union has progressed recent decades to encompass more than million consumers in 28 EU Member States european commission recommendation online gambling adjoining countries.

During the same period, consumer issues have received growing policy european commission recommendation online gambling and policy measures have been put in place to harmonize the Single Market, that is, to make national markets more alike. Yet, in order to provide policy measures that promote desirable market outcomes, the considerable challenge of understanding differences in the market performances of participating countries and the relationships between national markets and the Single Market need to be addressed.

Consequently, this article proposes the consideration of differences in terms of regimes, that is, between groups of similar countries, when assessing the performances of markets. Differences in market performances are analysed with the Kruskal—Wallis test using survey data from the European Commission, and results were reviewed against market studies carried out by the Commission. Findings show that regime differences in market performance can indeed be observed and that the regime approach can draw policy attention to commonalities in market arrangements in addition to the consumer issues conventionally examined, such as price differences and consumer awareness.

During recent decades, consumption has increasingly become a political project, and the European Union has worked to promote a vision of European consumer society based on access, individual choice, and trust in the market. Consumer protection and grand casino slots promotion of consumer interests constitute core issues in European integration and are increasingly considered in the context of the Single Market.

It has even been argued that the competitive european commission recommendation online gambling border-free European commission recommendation online gambling economy itself fulfils the interest of the consumer in that consumer welfare is central to the success of the Single Market Monti which, furthermore, should be a source of opportunity for all citizens Commission of the European Communities Lower prices, greater variety, and a higher quality of goods and services have been considered the most important benefits for European consumers European Commission Consequently, competition rules have a prominent role in the free movement of goods and services, and the European Member States have also regulated markets in other ways to protect consumers from, for instance, european commission recommendation online gambling damages and fraud.

Regulation that targets better market performance also aims to foster conditions favourable to innovations and dynamic business european commission recommendation online gambling in the global economy. In this context, Member States should then invest in policy means and tools that are locally necessary to make the Single Market work Commission of the European Communities This development has led to a situation where consumer policy is rooted in numerous national and European policy technicalities and european commission recommendation online gambling arrangements.

An established approach to examining the situation is to compare the policies and market arrangements of individual countries with the policies and prerequisites of the Single Market of the European Union see Weatherill on consumer law and policy; Smits on distribution of competences between European Union and Member States; European Commission a on EU economic situation, policy and surveillance, and country reports, for instancebut this readily becomes a complex analysis concerned either with very specific descriptions or with general recommendations, as is exemplified in European market reports see, for instance, GfK EU3Cwhich identifies a wide variety of specific meat types available across Member States yet focuses on standardized information on food.

In contrast, selecting the Single Market perspective as a starting point bypasses national economic and institutional arrangements which, nevertheless, need to be addressed. Nonetheless, in this article, differences are examined from the perspective of consumer policy regimes, which draw attention to similarities between groups of countries and cover european commission recommendation online gambling principles, norms, rules, and institutions of consumer policy adapted from Abbott et al.

Regimes do evolve, but slowly, as they are embedded in the markets and procedures of their respective countries. The regime approach provides the european commission recommendation online gambling of simplifying analysis of a large number of markets and interactions between national markets and the Single Market and yet is sufficiently institutionally embedded see Micklitz ; Svetiev to allow for the formulation and design of distinct policies relating to markets by clarifying the degree to which selected policy measures impact different european commission recommendation online gambling of markets see Hill ; Howlett et al.

Using the market for electricity services as an example, click to see more in Continental Europe assess market performance far more highly than consumers in Southern Europe see Table 2but transparency and switching between may prove to be insufficient if production arrangements cannot absorb changes.

Furthermore, unified or harmonized policies may result in dissimilar effects in different circumstances. Therefore, it is valuable to acknowledge that economic and institutional differences between countries and groups of countries do play a role in European policy making.

This article argues that market performance issues should be addressed not only at Single Market Laser battlestar galactica online casino Formen national levels but also at a policy regime level.

Such a regime approach draws attention to economic and institutional commonalities between countries and is therefore apt to supplement the dichotomous relationship between national markets and the European commission recommendation online gambling Market cf.

Howlett ; John ; Wison The study is conducted in light of a situation in european commission recommendation online gambling European policies promoting the Single Market, and the role of consumers within it, are increasingly focusing on harmonized market arrangements Hondius ; Svetiev This article first develops and positions the idea of market regimes in the context of the Single Market.

It then demonstrates, using statistical analysis, that there are performance differences in selected markets between five identified economic and institutional regimes in Europe.

The results are then positioned in a policy context through a review of recommendations provided by in-depth reports on these markets. The concluding section of the article discusses the usability of the regime approach against the background of economically and institutionally different, yet in many ways fastest paying online casino similar, national markets and their relationship to the Single Market.

Special emphasis is given to policy development in the Single Market. The development of consumer markets is european commission recommendation online gambling described from institutional and historical perspectives Bevir and Trentmann ; Daunton and Hiltonan approach that takes into account the organization of production, distribution, and consumption; the roles of government; and the regulation of markets, as well as the activities of interest groups.

Indeed, to understand the consumer markets of today, it is very useful to follow-up on how markets have emerged and developed. Much of the development of consumer markets has taken place in national frameworks although international trade and, more recently, economic integration have also played a role.

In Europe, click Single Market has obviously been significant in this context but so has european commission recommendation online gambling globalization, in particular after the s when the importance of China and other Asian countries was accentuated in the global economy.

Yet, even though economic integration and economic globalization have progressed, national institutional arrangements still have a great effect on many consumer markets, something made evident in the continuing development of the Behandeln: neue playtech casinos 2015 Aromawickel European Market and ongoing harmonization of European consumer law see Howarth and Sadeh ; Weatherill There have already been attempts to identify commonalities in market development within groups of countries.

These are contextually oriented and take economic and institutional arrangements into consideration while also acknowledging that there can be varying, albeit similar, ways to address similar consumer issues.

For instance, the European Commission has followed this reasoning when distinguishing Member States in terms of geographical location in the North, South, West, and East European Commission a —or in terms of EU15 and EU13, reflecting the time of transition into the European Union European Commission b —in its attempts to explain current market performance as well as provide transnational policy proposals for the future.

While regimes, and the countries belonging to them, may be defined differently for specific analytical purposes, the regime approach helps to look inside the structures of the Single Market and beyond national specificities and also encourages interdisciplinary explanations of market performance combining law, policy, and the economy in this article. Acknowledging similarities in countries of the same regime, while accounting for differences between regimes, could offer the possibility of reframing analysis of the market monitoring european commission recommendation online gambling and, accordingly, assist in formulating successful policy measures for different types of challenges and settings.

This article explores whether there are grounds for proceeding with such a regime analysis and looks for prospects against the backgrounds of legal traditions and economic organization see La Porta et al. This article identifies consumer market regimes on the basis of common market arrangements, legal traditions, and established country categorizations provided by the European Commission.

Regime identification european commission recommendation online gambling based, in particular, on classifications from Trumbull directed at consumption and production regimes and Micklitz on legal traditions in consumer protection.

These coincide to a large extent, but when they do not, deviations are discussed. Additionally, an eastern regime has been identified, following up on European integration.

The following sections explain the basis for the classification before introducing five European regimes, which all represent different types of consumer markets. Micklitz identified commonalities and differences in organization, areas, and activities of four European consumer protection models in the s: Common law, being pragmatic by nature, constrained regulation to certain areas such as product liability and competition and promoted self-regulation, while the Roman tradition with its legacy of policy centralism highlighted the european commission recommendation online gambling between free markets and interventionism.

In contrast, consumer interest groups and the goal of systemic perfection played important roles in Germany, while efficiency induced by state agencies was accentuated in the Scandinavian countries. Of course, models evolve over time and the development of consumer protection has followed trends of state interventionism in markets Reich Extending the scope from the legal tradition to ideas, institutions, and market arrangements, Trumbull reviewed consumption and production regimes circaclassifying countries according to their organization of consumption economic, associational, and european commission recommendation online gambling and production market, corporatist, and statist.

When doing so, he looked at a number of institutional arrangements with regard to misleading advertising, unfair contract terms, standards of product liability, and legal class actions, thus demonstrating again how challenging it is to attempt to classify countries unambiguously.

These classifications hold up well in the regime framework, and they also supplement those produced by Micklitz, which were based on legal traditions and consumer protection. In this context, consumption takes on an economic, associational, or political character while production is market-oriented, corporatist, or statist. In his depictions, Germany and Austria are distinguished by socio-politically organized, corporatist production, which is influenced by major interest groups, and policies that consider the consumer to be a market actor rather than an individual european commission recommendation online gambling need of protection.

In the UK, both production european commission recommendation online gambling consumption are organized around markets. In France, in contrast, production is characteristically state-centred with the realm of consumption politically arranged.

Outside Europe, Trumbull recognized that in the USA, consumption was politically organized around market production, whereas Japan lay at the other extreme with economically organized consumption and statist production. This left out accounts published in other domestic languages and, in effect, also excludes many countries from the analysis.

For instance, many new EU European commission recommendation online gambling States were not considered. While regimes european commission recommendation online gambling not permanent formations and existing ones may disintegrate and new emerge, this european commission recommendation online gambling substantial changes in policy paradigms and shifts in political power european commission recommendation online gambling organizational arrangements Krasner ; Wison Therefore, it comes as no surprise that the identified regimes are very similar in spite of being developed on the basis of different criteria and for different aims Single Market development, legal traditions and harmonization, identification of consumption and production systems.

The notion of regimes is also broader in scope than that of a national consumer policy system, which is often characterized by the activities of public actors and interest groups; furthermore, it is abstract in the sense that it relates to market arrangements at a transnational level. The Scandinavian tradition regime emerges clearly in all three northern states Norway and Iceland fit here but have been left out of the EC definition due to their not being Member States of the EUas does the Southern European Roman or Mediterranean regime.

The 12 core countries of the European Union i. Trumbull, on click other hand, sees that while consumption is market-based in the UK, Germany, and Austria, production is market-based only in the first while being characterized by corporatism in the latter two.

Hence, the 12 countries and subsequent new Member States are further broken down into two distinct regimes in this article: Although this regime categorization is unequivocal for most countries, the procedure is less clear for Cyprus and France. In this article, Cyprus is categorized in the Anglo, rather than the Southern European regime, due to its institutional heritage in the Commonwealth of Nations and its British-influenced administration, thus highlighting the greater impact of institutional and legal traditions compared with geographical position.

Similarly, France is here categorized in the Continental European regime, highlighting its centrality in the Single Market and its distinction from market arrangements characterizing the Anglo regime; however, the positioning of France in a regime is by no means straightforward, and France vegas withdrawal rules even been treated as an archetype of its own in literature on varieties of capitalism Hall european commission recommendation online gambling According to TrumbullFrance is an outlier distinguished by a political organization of consumption and a european commission recommendation online gambling organization of production, while Micklitz depicts France in a prominent position in the Roman legal tradition, highlighting an interplay between free markets and interventionism Micklitz From a European economic perspective, however, France merits a place in the Continental regime due to its major impact on shaping Europe and the Single Market and cannot be treated as an outlier.

The regime account used here resembles, without exactly following, the progress and expansion of the European Union and its Single Market in terms of inclusion of new Member States and their transition.

This is not a coincidence because, temporally, expansion has tended to engage similar kinds of neighbouring countries. Thus, the performance of markets in European countries is reviewed in subsequent sections in terms of the practice and profiles of the groups outlined above.

Four scoreboard surveys of this kind have been conducted so far European Commission, european commission recommendation online gamblingawhich european commission recommendation online gambling monitored products and services that comprise more than half the average household budget, excluding housing, medical products, and education. It has proven challenging to categorize services coherently, and minor changes have been made over the years.

New service markets have also been added spectacles and lenses in and online gambling casinos netent Nevertheless, scoreboard indicators on services have remained stable over the years for services as well as goods, indicating that the scoreboard procedure has reached a high degree of maturity.

Data has primarily been used to identify markets european commission recommendation online gambling goods source services that underperform, providing benchmarking at the level of the Single Market as well as of national markets. More detailed market studies, however, have then been conducted from the perspective of the Single Market.

Yet, while there unquestionably has been considerable economic integration and legal harmonization, much consumption takes place in economically local and legally national settings.

Furthermore, harmonization and integration have also taken place between neighbouring and similar countries, that is, not only in the direction of the Single Market. The scoreboard tracks the performances of 52 consumer markets of goods and services in the European countries. Here, the 10 markets which the European Commission has selected for separate extensive in-depth european commission recommendation online gambling studies are examined: Overall, these markets have been found to have performance issues: Of those involving goods, one european commission recommendation online gambling at the higher end, three at the lower end, and one in the middle of the 52 markets examined in the Consumer Market Monitoring Surveys, while all service markets were studied rank at the lower end of performance.

The scoreboard seeks to identify markets that are perceived by consumers to deliver less than desired outcomes in a statistically reliable and comparable way in 30 markets, while also helping to identify socio-economic groups experiencing problems.

In order to take a closer look at market issues, the European Commission has conducted parallel in-depth studies on selected markets, enabling the explanation of potential differences in market performance in greater detail European Commission a. This procedure reflects the fact that governance of the Single Market takes place european commission recommendation online gambling institutional mechanisms, rules, and practises while aiming for concrete benefits for individuals and businesses.

Monitoring the Single Market attempts to recognize i casinos failures as well as Member State adherence click at this page the Single Market. The data being used click this article is from the most recent Consumer Markets Scoreboard, the tenth, for which data european commission recommendation online gambling collected in the spring of via a survey covering the 28 EU Member States, Norway, and Iceland, conducted by european commission recommendation online gambling interview.

Responses from samples of adult consumers, representative in terms of socio-demography and telephone ownership and with experience of the markets in question, were collected in each country with the exceptions of Cyprus, Iceland, Luxembourg, and Malta in which responses were collected.

Each consumer could respond to questions concerning a maximum of eight markets, meaning that the minimum number of interviews amounted to per country for the exceptions. Altogether, the scoreboard covers assessments from 14, European consumers and 52 markets in 30 countries, representing an immense undertaking in data collection.

A detailed description of the data collection procedure can be found in the European Commission a.

Cosmetics - European Commission

Commission recommends principles to ensure effective online with of consumers. The European Commission has today adopted a Recommendation on online gambling services.

It encourages Member States to pursue a high level of protection for consumers, players and minors through the adoption of principles for online gambling services and for responsible advertising and sponsorship of those services. European commission recommendation online gambling aims of the principles are to safeguard health and to minimise the eventual please click for source harm that may result from compulsive or excessive gambling.

We now look to the Member States, but also to online gambling operators, to match our ambition for a high level of consumer protection throughout the EU in this fast growing digital sector.

Basic information requirements for gambling european commission recommendation online gambling, in particular to ensure that consumers are provided with sufficient information to understand the risks related to gambling. Commercial communication advertising and sponsorship should be carried out in a responsible way. Member States should ensure that minors are not able to gamble online, and that rules are in place to minimise their contact with gambling, including through advertising or promotion of gambling services whether broadcast or displayed.

There should be a registration process to open a player account so that consumers have to provide details of age and identity for verification by the operators. This should also enable operators to keep track of player behaviour and raise the alarm if necessary. Ongoing support should be available to players to prevent gambling-related problems, by equipping them with tools to keep gambling under control: Players should have access to helplines they can call for assistance about their gambling behaviour, and they should be able to easily exclude themselves from gambling websites.

Advertising and sponsorship of online gambling services should be more socially responsible and transparent. For example, it should not make unfounded statements about chances of winning, exert pressure to gamble, just click for source suggest that gambling resolves social, professional, personal or financial problems.

Member States should ensure that training is provided to employees of online gambling operators interacting with players to ensure they understand problem gambling issues and are able to liaise with the players appropriately.

Member States are also invited to carry out european commission recommendation online gambling campaigns about gambling and related risks, as well as click here collect data about the opening and closing of player accounts and breaches of commercial communication rules.

Member States should also designate competent regulatory authorities to help ensure, in an independent manner, effective monitoring of compliance with the Recommendation. The fast-paced progress of online technology, with see more development of mobile phones and smart phones, tablets and digital TV, goes hand-in-hand with an increase in the offer and use of online gambling services in Europe.

For the majority of people in the EU who take part in online gambling, check this out is a recreational activity. However, there are a number european commission recommendation online gambling risks associated with gambling. It is estimated that between 0. Gambling becomes a source when go here ceases to be purely enjoyable and turns into dependence.

Children and adolescents are also increasingly at risk, due to the fact that they use the internet more and more european commission recommendation online gambling information or entertainment, and can easily come into contact with gambling advertising and gambling websites.

Therefore, preventive measures are necessary to minimise potential harm and to guarantee that online gambling services are offered and promoted in a responsible manner. In addition, several Member States are currently reviewing their legal frameworks in this area and should be able to use the Recommendation as guidance. The Recommendation invites Member States to inform the Commission about the measures taken in light of the Recommendation 18 months after its publication in the Official Journal of the European Union.

The Commission will evaluate the measures taken by Member European commission recommendation online gambling 30 months after publication. The Recommendation is accompanied by an impact assessment and european commission recommendation online gambling behavioural study on online gambling and adequate measures for the protection of consumers.

Back to the search results. Commission recommends principles to ensure effective protection of consumers European commission recommendation online gambling European Commission has today adopted a Recommendation on online gambling services.

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